Wellesley College (New Zealand)

Croydon’s first term at Day’s Bay began Wed.

Wellesley College is a boys-only independent primary school in Days Bay, Eastbourne, New Zealand.

Wellesley provides classes for boys from Year 0 to Year 8. The school’s roll is currently managed to a level of around 340 boys providing an average class size of 23. While core Christian values are maintained representatives of other beliefs have always been a part of Croydon and Wellesley.

Team and athletic sports are provided for and there is a full complement of the necessary facilities. The sheltered waters of Day’s Bay and its bush-clad backdrop give opportunities for less structured activities. The curriculum includes the performing arts and visual arts.

Now only a day school until 1970 its core was a boarding school drawing boys from remote-dwelling farming families all over the central North Island, Rangitikei, Hawkes Bay and Wairarapa plus a fair share of city boys. On school-days more boys, then as now, came by ferry or bussed from Wellington and the many parts of the Hutt. The school’s acquisition of the fine grounds and the first accommodation came about through a commercial failure.

Day’s Bay House was built in 1903 for ship-owner, J H Williams, turned ferry service and eastern-harbour property developer. His Wellington Steam Ferry Company Limited made the heart of Day’s Bay a destination resort and sports complex. The hotel operation met with only moderate success and in 1913 with its immediate surrounds, 4 acres, it was sold to Miss Gladys Sommerville so she might expand her successful Croydon School then still based at 81 Hill Street Thorndon.

The remaining property was then bought by the Wellington City Council and is named Williams Park.

With little or no change Day’s Bay House became Croydon Preparatory School for Boys. The old croquet-lawn became the sports field and in the 1920s the hotel’s bowling-green became the boys‘ tennis courts. The rugby field remained at the southern side of the driveway but was not part of school grounds. The Pavilion and its amusements like the ferries and their wharf became part of (out-of-bounds) school life.

Upstairs on the northern side two pairs of bedrooms became dorms 1 and 2 and the upstairs guest sitting-room became dorm 3. Ultimately the (lightly) enclosed upstairs central verandah became a dormitory for the bigger boys. A comparatively well built first-floor room was added on high posts at the north-east corner to form a sick-bay. The main sitting-room was used by the principal but otherwise all accommodation and facilities were used as for the hotel. Boys were not permitted to use the main staircase.

Two corrugated-iron walled additions were made at the back of the main building; an assembly hall cum gymnasium with a very rarely used fireplace all on the same level as the main building and a two-storied block of four small classrooms up on the slope behind it, each with a tiny fireplace. The stairs to the upper floor were dramatically steep. Infant classes remained in the north-facing rooms of the main building by the gymnasium.

Miss Sommerville returned to Thorndon to direct the school from her house in Hill Street.

The school flagpole was the mast of the Cobar. The Cobar was the steam yacht of the General Manager of The Great Cobar Copper Mining Company Limited in NSW Australia. The mining company struck temporary financial difficulties. Cobar was less than four years old and the Wellington Ferry Company snapped it up, sailed it over from Sydney and made the NSW coastal vessel a Day’s Bay ferry. Cobar became so much part of the community its name has since been recycled for successors. She was able to carry 900 passengers but licensed for just 745 people.

In April 1919 the Wellington Diocesan Church Schools Board purchased Croydon (and also Mrs Swainson’s school renaming it Marsden).

Croydon would be a boarding school. The Board already had day schools in: Waverley, Masterton, Taihape, Marton, Hawera, and at St Mark’s Wellington.

Board personnel were: Dr Sprott (bishop), Miss Baber (Marsden school), Rev R Franklin (St Barnabas Roseneath, diocesan organising secretary), Messrs. A E Mabin, W J Birch, G Shirtcliffe and J F Studholme.

The generous help of the last four men as guarantors was acknowledged by the bishop when the school re-opened on 6 June 1919. The bishop advised that failing health had obliged Miss Sommerville to retire and she would not remain head of the school having given her „strong opinion“ that the school should have a headmaster. The Rev R H Hobday had been appointed. The opening ceremony concluded with the hearty singing of the National Anthem.

The new name for the school did not ’stick‘ and soon it reverted to Croydon.

In 1940 Mr William Hutton Stevens, who was lame and therefore known to many as ‘Hoppy’, leased the premises from the Wellington Diocesan Board and moved his day school, Wellesley College, which had been situated by the Wellington Club on The Terrace (and was spoken of by some as „not a proper school, a crammer’s“) to Day’s Bay.

The pupils of the Wellington Diocesan School for Boys (Croydon) were to be taken over by W H Stevens Limited and the company was required to provide for religious instruction in accordance with the doctrines of the Church of England in co-operation with the local vicar. Over lasting resistance Mr Stevens declared the two schools merged.

In 1965 the Diocesan Board regained management of the premises and in the end elected to retain the name Wellesley.

The corrugated-iron additions with the sick-bay annexe and laundry were demolished and new buildings erected there and on the former bowling-green tennis courts. New classrooms were opened at the beginning of 1969 and the new gymnasium / hall at the beginning of the 3rd term of the same year.

The little Arts & Crafts style church was put beside the school in 1922 at what is now 2 Pitoitoi Road. Much of its external character was given by its proportions, the fashionable way it had been painted and its high white-washed pebble-dash walls. At services a parishioner played its harmonium and there was sometimes evensong as well as matins.

Without its term-time boarders and within Eastbourne’s parish the church building was removed in 1973 and the site sold.

Wellesley as of 2014 has four houses: Wellington, Marlborough, Selwyn and Croydon.

Arsonists (hip hop group)

Arsonists are an underground hip hop group. Their album, As the World Burns (1999), reached No. 78 on Billboard’s Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums; its single, „Pyromaniax“, reached No. 43 on Billboard’s Hot Rap Singles chart.

The group was formed with five members in 1993 in Bushwick, Brooklyn, New York, as Bushwick Bomb Squad. The main members were Q-Unique, D-Stroy, Freestyle, Swel Boogie and Jise One, although the number of members eventually grew to eight. Q-Unique was a member of New York City’s well-known breakdancing crew, the Rock Steady Crew. The group released a single, „The Session“, in 1996, which was played on New York radio stations and brought offers from record labels. They signed with the independent label Fondle ‚Em Records and changed their name to the Arsonists. They released their first album, As the World Burns, in 1999 on Matador Records, an indie rock label that ventured into hip hop music for the release. The album received critical acclaim,[citation needed] but did not achieve mainstream commercial success; it reached No. 78 on Billboard’s Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart. They appeared on the final album by the digital hardcore band Atari Teenage Riot, 60 Second Wipeout, that year. The group went from five members down to three: Q-Unique, Jise One and Swel Boogie, for their follow-up album, Date of Birth in 2001. With their live performances, the group is known to be very varied in its rap style, drawing on many old school hip hop and east coast hip hop influences. Kansas City’s alternative weekly newspaper, The Pitch, described them as „one of the best live bands in hip-hop“ in 2001. On 18 August 2011, Arsonists played the first show in 11 years that had all four members on stage at Hip Hop Kemp in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

A new album called Lost in the Fire was planned for 2013 with the original members Q-Unique, D-Stroy, Freestyle, Swel Boogie and Jise One but the album has not been released yet.

5-й гаубичный артиллерийский полк большой мощности

: Не следует путать с 5-м гаубичным артиллерийским полком 5-й танковой дивизии

5-й гаубичный артиллерийский полк — воинская часть Вооружённых Сил СССР в Великой Отечественной войне. Полк в разное время мог называться 5-й гаубичный артиллерийский полк большой мощности, в том числе с добавлением аббревиатур «РГК» или «РВГК»

На вооружении полка имелось 24 203-мм гаубицы.

В действующей армии во время ВОВ с 22 июня 1941 по 25 июля 1941 и с 15 сентября 1942 по 2 февраля 1943 года.

На 22 июня 1941 года дислоцировался в деревне Мышенки (ныне Мышанка Петриковского района Гомельской области). С началом войны на базе полка должен был разворачиваться 612-й гаубичный артиллерийский полк, но по видимому, он так и не был развёрнут.

Через месяц после начала войны был отведён в тыл, в Приволжский военный округ, где находился более года.

2 октября 1942 года получил приказ на выдвижение под Сталинград.. С 17 ноября по 14 декабря 1942 года принимал участие в контрнаступлении под Сталинградом, находясь в составе группы артиллерии дальнего действия. В начале февраля 1943 года полк был отведён в тыл и в апреле 1943 года был расформирован, личный состав направлен на укомплектование 101-й гаубичной артиллерийской бригады

Veterans Memorial Stadium (La Crosse)

Veterans Memorial Stadium is a stadium in La Crosse, Wisconsin. The original Veterans Memorial Stadium facility was built in 1948. It was demolished in 2008 and a new structure opened in 2009. It seats 10,000, with around 6,200 seats in the main grandstand. The stadium is primarily used for football and track and field. It is the home field of the University of Wisconsin–La Crosse Eagles. The 10-lane, 400 meter track complex has hosted several NCAA championships and hosts the Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association state high school track and field championships each June. The stadium complex also houses the Veterans Hall of Honor meeting room.

Veterans Memorial Complex was expanded to increase stadium seating to around 10,000, improve Harring Field and the surrounding track, and provide additional athletic fields for soccer and intramural sports. Officials wanted to attract and retain large events such as the WIAA state track meet, while having the necessary fields and associated structures to support both UW–La Crosse athletic and recreational activities as well as community events and programs. In the past, the New Orleans Saints had used La Crosse’s facilities for the team’s summer training camp. The university is said to be interested in attracting another NFL team to the campus.

The expansion, which had an estimated cost of about $14.5 million, began with demolition of the previous stadium in June 2008. The field and track itself was completed in September 2008, while the entire project was finished in August 2009.

Prior to the beginning of the project, the university outlined various goals of the expansion.

Coordinates:

Emmetten-Stockhütte

Emmetten-Stockhütte ist ein Wander- beziehungsweise Skigebiet oberhalb von Emmetten im Schweizer Kanton Nidwalden. Die Emmetten-Stockhütte-Seilbahn ist eine Gondelbahn, die von Emmetten (Talstation 762 m ü. M.) zur Stockhütte (Bergstation 1’284 m ü. M.) fährt. Bei der Bergstation befindet sich ein Restaurant.

Emmetten-Stockhütte ist Teil des Skigebites Klewenalp-Stockhütte. Im Winter gibt es bei der Bergstation präparierte Pisten, die mit der Klewenalp verbunden sind. Im Sommer ist die Bergstation Emmetten-Stockhütte Ausgangspunkt für Wanderungen, zum Beispiel zur Klewenalp oder zum Berggasthaus Niederbauen.

Koordinaten:

Christoph Flügge

Christoph Flügge (* 14. Juli 1947) ist ein deutscher Jurist. Von Juni 2001 bis Februar 2007 war er Staatssekretär der Senatsverwaltung für Justiz in Berlin. Seit dem 18. November 2008 ist er permanenter Richter am Internationalen Strafgerichtshof für das ehemalige Jugoslawien in Den Haag. Im Dezember 2011 wurde er außerdem zum Richter des Internationalen Residualmechanismus für die Ad-hoc-Strafgerichtshöfe gewählt.

Von 1967 bis 1973 studierte er Rechtswissenschaften an der Freien Universität Berlin und der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn. Das erste juristische Staatsexamen legte er 1973 ab, das zweite 1976. Parallel zu seinem Studium arbeitete er von 1969 bis 1971 für einen sozialdemokratischen Bundestagsabgeordneten. Von 1973 bis 1976 war er Rechtsreferendar in Berlin.

1976 wurde Flügge Persönlicher Referent des Innensenators Kurt Neubauer (SPD). Bevor Neubauer im April 1977 vom Senatorenamt zurücktrat, wechselte er im Januar 1977 zur Berliner Staatsanwaltschaft. Ab 1978 arbeitete er in der Berliner Senatsjustizverwaltung, wurde dort Referatsleiter in der Abteilung Justizvollzug.

1983 wurde er Strafrichter, zunächst an einer großen Strafkammer des Landgerichts Berlin, dann als Vorsitzender eines Schöffengerichts am Amtsgericht Tiergarten Berlin. 2001 berief ihn Justizsenator Wolfgang Wieland (Grüne) zum Staatssekretär der Senatsjustizverwaltung. Wieland schätzte ihn als „feste Größe für eine liberale, aber realistische Justizpolitik“. Im Februar 2007 wurde er von Justizsenatorin Gisela von der Aue (SPD) wegen politischer Differenzen wegen angeblich in der Justizvollzugsanstalt Moabit unterschlagener Arzneimittel aus dem Amt entlassen. Auf Vorschlag des Bundesjustizministeriums ernannte der Generalsekretär der Vereinten Nationen, Ban Ki-Moon, Flügge 2008 zum permanenten Richter am Internationalen Strafgerichtshof für das ehemalige Jugoslawien in Den Haag. Er trat dort die Nachfolge Wolfgang Schomburgs an, der wegen der psychischen Belastung in der Folge der Zeugenaussagen sich außerstande sah, sein Amt weiterzuführen. Im Dezember 2011 erfolgte außerdem seine Wahl zum Richter des Internationalen Residualmechanismus für die Ad-hoc-Strafgerichtshöfe, der ab Juli 2012 als Nachfolgeeinrichtung der Ad-hoc-Strafgerichtshöfe für das ehemalige Jugoslawien und für Ruanda fungiert.

Im Strafprozess gegen den früheren Polizeichef und stellvertretenden Innenminister Serbiens, Vlastimir Đorđević, war Flügge Mitglied des Richtergremiums. Seit Dezember 2009 ist er Vorsitzender der Strafkammer im Verfahren gegen den bosnisch-serbischen General Zdravko Tolimir. Am 27. Mai 2011 wurde er zum Mitglied eines dreiköpfigen Richtergremiums der Ersten Strafkammer bestimmt, das den Prozess gegen den serbischen Ex-General Ratko Mladić entscheidet. Mit ihm gemeinsam werden der Niederländer Alphonsus Orie als Vorsitzender und der Südafrikaner Bakone Justice Moloto das Verfahren führen. Auf Beschluss des Richtergremiums leitet der Niederländer die Sitzungen. Vertreter der Opfer des Massakers von Srebrenica forderten seine Abberufung aus der Kammer, da er sich in einem Interview gegen die Wertung als Völkermord ausgesprochen habe.

Flügge ist verheiratet.

Mount of piety

A mount of piety is an institutional pawnbroker run as a charity in Europe from the Late Middle Ages times till today, more often referred to by the relevant local term, such as monte di pietà (Italian), mont de piété (French) or monte de piedad (Spanish). Similar institutions were established in the colonies of Catholic countries; the Mexican Nacional Monte de Piedad is still in operation.

This fifteenth-century institution originated in Italy and was developed in cities as a reform against money lending, an early form of organized charity.

The public office was organized and operated by the Catholic Churches and offered financial loans at a moderate interest to those in need. The organizing principle, based on the benefit of the borrower and not the profit of the lender, was viewed as a lesser evil than money lending. The organization of the Monte di Pietà depended on acquiring a monte, a collection of funds from voluntary donations by financially privileged people who had no intentions of regaining their money. The people in need would then be able to come to the Monte di Pietà and give an item of value in exchange for a monetary loan. The term of the loan would last the course of a year and would only be worth about two-thirds of the borrower’s item value. A pre-determined interest rate would be applied to the loan and these profits were used to pay the expenses of operating the Monte di Pietà.

Such organizations spread throughout the continent of Western Europe during the Middle Ages, a credit to the preaching of Franciscans and their condemnation of usury, with later support by both Dominican preachers and humanist intellectuals of the fifteenth century.

In 1462, the first recorded Monte di Pietà was founded in Perugia. Between 1462 and 1470, an estimated forty more were developed. The Franciscan Marco di Matteo Strozzi preached about the benefits of a Monte di Pietà in combating usury. He left a set of memoirs that outlined his goal to rid the city of Jewish money lenders and to replace them with Christian pawn shops which allowed the poor to acquire cheap credit.

In Rome, Pope Sixtus V (1585-90) founded in 1585 the local Monte di Pietà in via dei Coronari. Moved later near Campo de‘ Fiori to the piazza bearing its name, it still exists.

The first institution was started in 1361 by the Bishop of London, Michael Northburgh, who left 1000 marks of silver for the establishment of a bank that should lend money on pawned objects, without interest, providing that the expenses of the institution be defrayed from its foundation capital. He had the monies deposited in a chest in the body of St Paul’s and directed that if in any case at the end of the year the sums borrowed were not repaid, then the preacher at Paul’s Cross should in his sermon declare that the pledge would be sold within fourteen days, if not redeemed forthwith. The capital was eventually consumed, and the bank closed.

Malta’s Monte di Pietà was set up in 1598, initially under the name Monte di Sant’Anna. It was merged with the Monte della Redenzione degli Schiavi in 1787, becoming known as the Monte di Pietà e Redenzione. The Monte di Pietà is still in operation today as part of the Inland Revenue Department.

A massaro or massaio had the duty of overseeing the daily interactions between the borrowers that came to the Monte di Pietà and the other employees. If the item was believed to be the legal property of the borrower two assistants called scrivani collected the pawn from the borrower. After examining and recording details about the condition of the object, it would then be passed to assessors who would evaluate the item’s value. The massaro would then make three copies of a numbered receipt that identified the owner’s name, the type of object being pawned, the condition of the object, the object’s value, the amount of the loan and the date. Generally, the loan would not exceed two thirds of the object’s value. The three receipts would be given to the owner or borrower, another would be kept in the massaro’s record book and one receipt would be attached to the item.

The monetary funds would then be supplied by the cashier to the borrower. This employee had the duty of keeping their own records of the money collected, loaned and the interest on each loan. During the first year of operations, the Monte di Pietà did not grant loans more than twenty-five lire to people who lived in the city and ten lire to people who lived in the rural area five miles from the city. This restriction was expected to increase as more funds were acquired from voluntary and involuntary donations. If a borrower wanted to regain his pawned item, he would have to return the receipt to the massaro. The cashier would then calculate the interest that was earned on the item and the borrower would have to pay the interest in order to redeem their pawn. This interest collection provided one of the sources of revenue for the daily functions, operations, and salaries of the Monte di Pietà.

The Monte di Pietà‘s employees were responsible for keeping track of the daily operations of the organization. Strict regulation dictated both their work and personal life. For example, fines were imposed for improper or dishonest behaviour. The actual space of the „Monte di Pietà was regarded as a pious and religious house“ and therefore stage plays, dances, games and other festivities were forbidden. The employees’ salaries came from the income generated by the interest payments on loans. The massaro earned 120 florins per year, the cashier was paid 80 florins, the massaro’s two assistants received 30 florins each, the assessors received 40 florins each, and the two servants earned 24 florins each.

The Monte di Pietà accumulated capital from members of the patrician class, middle class, corporate groups, guilds, fines resulting from lawsuits and Communed ordered resources. One of the most creative strategies that preachers used in Florentine to acquire more capital for their “monte” was to declare Palm Sunday as a day for donations in the form of alms. The “monte” was supposed to be gathered from „gifts or donations in honour of a person’s love for God“. Some scholars hypothesize that members of the artisan class and widows would freely give some money towards the “monte” upon hearing a sermon condemning usury and proclaiming the need to help the poor. While some monetary deposits were voluntary, some people had no choice in funding the capital for the “monte”. For example, Monna Margherita da Poppi of 1497 gave 40 lire to the Monte di Pietà as part of her sentence in a legal matter. The Monte di Pietà was in charge of keeping this money from her until she was married. In this case, the organization of the Monte di Pietà was a dowry fund which became popular during the mid-sixteenth century. More revenues for the “monte” were acquired from the state through ordered fines.

Before the Monte di Pietà actually operated, a group of „eight men assembled to draw up the statues“ of the Florentine monte di pietà on April 15, 1496. The eight who gathered were Niccolò de’ Nobili, Piero de’ Lenzi, Bernardo de’ Segni, Niccolò de’ Nero, Piero de’ Guicciardini, Giacopo de’ Salviati, Antonio di Sasso di Sasso and Diacopo Mannucci. It was the members of the patrician class that dominated the prestigious and well paid positions of decision making concerning the Monte di Pietà. Since the purpose of the Monte di Pietà was to combat usury, there were clear guidelines regarding the operations of the organization. For example, the employees had to ensure that all items that were exchanged were free, and therefore the legal property of the person pawning it. Also there were guidelines regarding the kind of items that were permitted, and the amount a person could borrow, both in terms of time and quantity. For example, holy items and unfinished goods such as pieces of cloth were not accepted as pawns for loans.

The Monte di pietà was developed on the principle of charity. It was designed to aid less fortunate people by providing an alternative to the socially unaccepted Jewish money lending system. However, Jewish banks continued to exist with the Monte di Pietà and they each catered to a distinctive clientele.

The Mount of Piety is a different organisational form from the so-called montepío, which appeared during the second half of the 18th century. The Montepío was a mutual, agnostic, and government-controlled institution established by craftsmen or lesser standing professionals to care for members‘ needs when disabled or rehabilitating. They operated under a Patron Saint and in a church or monastery but without any religious obligation (and many had an ephemeral life).

The Home and Family Show

Home and Family (formerly The Home and Family Show) is an American talk and home information show originally hosted by Cristina Ferrare and Chuck Woolery. Woolery was replaced by Michael Burger after a few months. The show premiered on April 1, 1996, on The Family Channel and ran until August 14, 1998, featuring numerous regulars who added information on various topics. Among the regulars were Jamie Wynn (chef); Candace Garvey (lifestyles); Mayita Dinos (gardening); Bob Golic (sewing, among other things); and The Carey Brothers (carpentry and home repairs). The show was unique in that the daily guest star was asked to remain for the entire two hours. This gave a much broader view of the personality and interests of the stars. Several of the crew also managed to gain some minor fame.

The series revived on October 1, 2012 on the Hallmark Channel. It was originally co-hosted by Paige Davis, who left after six weeks on November 16, 2012, with her final episode being taped the day before, and was replaced by Ferrare. Former Entertainment Tonight personality Mark Steines is the other current co-host. Season two premiered on September 30, 2013.

On April 30, 2014, Home and Family was renewed for a third season, which premiered on September 15. Renewal for a fourth season was announced on April 14, 2015, along with notice that the show would air new episodes weekly throughout the entire year.[citation needed]

On June 21, 2016, Hallmark Channel confirmed that Ferrare would no longer co-host the show with Steines; former co-host of The View Debbie Matenopoulos was named as her replacement. In a statement via-Facebook, Ferrare addressed her exit: „It’s really very simple, Home and Family will have a season 5 which I am so happy for and the Network decided that they want a new co-host and that will be Debbie. She will do a great job!”“

Home and Family is a two-hour daily series that shows viewers how to improve their lives through their home. The show is shot in an actual home built on the Universal Studios lot for the show.

A Little TLC

A Little TLC“ aka „TLC“ is a song written by Lynsey De Paul and Terry Britten about needing tender loving care. The song has been recorded by a number of artists starting with Japanese soul singer Marlene, where it was one of the tracks on her album Looking For Love, released on CBS/Sony in 1984. The band behind the children’s ground breaking real life/animation combination television show Kidd Video, also played the song on the show and it was featured as a track on the album The T.V. Show Hits, credited to Kidd Video and released in 1986. Hong Kong actor and singer Samuel Hui (Sam Hui) recorded a Chinese version of the song for that was featured in his movie Aces Go Places 3 aka Mad Mission 3 and the song was one of the 1986 RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs.[citation needed] A remix of the song was released on the 1987 Sam Hui album Xin Qu Yu Jing Xuan and more recently on the CD Nan Wan Hsu Guan Jie Sam Hui 30 Nian (30 Years of Hits from Sam Hui). Boy band Menudo from Puerto Rico released their version entitled „TLC“ on their U.S. album Sons of Rock, which was released in 1988 with Ricky Martin as the lead singer of the song. Lynsey’s own version was finally released on The official Lynsey De Paul Music Store.

Citybanan Stockholm

De Citybanan is een nieuw te bouwen spoortunnel onder de stadskern van Stockholm, met als doel de ’pendeltåg’ (pendeltrein die de voorsteden van Stockholm bedient) te scheiden van het overige treinverkeer dat door het centrum van Stockholm rijdt. De werkzaamheden zijn op 24 januari 2009 begonnen. Banverket (de railinfrastructuurbeheerder) verwacht in 2017 de ingebruikname.

Sammanbindningsbanan is een Zweedse spoorlijn in de stad Stockholm die tussen het station Stockholms Södra in het stadsdeel Södermalm en het station Stockholm C in het stadsdeel Norrmalm loopt.

De Sammanbindningsbanan zijn officieel sinds 1912 een integraal onderdeel van Västra stambanan, een term die uitsluitend van historische betekenis is.

Op heden kan Stockholm vanuit het zuiden maar via twee sporen bereikt worden. Deze sporen worden zowel gebruikt door de lokale treinen (Pendeltåg), regionale treinen, goederentreinen als lange-afstandstreinen. Dit is nog steeds hetzelfde aantal sporen als in 1871 toen de bestaande sporen werden gebundeld in twee lijnen. Deze twee spoorlijnen worden 24 uur per dag gebruikt, in de spitsuren tot één trein elke twee minuten in elke richting. Dit is de maximale capaciteit die deze lijnen aankunnen. Het gevolg is dan ook dat als een trein zijn geplande doortocht mist, dit meteen gevolgen heeft voor al de andere treinen die later moeten passeren. Ook is er een gebrek aan perrons. Er zijn slechts 6 perrons aanwezig voor lange-afstandsverkeer en 5 voor de lokale treinen.

Met de Citybanan is het de bedoeling dat de lokale treinen (Pendeltåg) een eigen route krijgen langs een zes kilometer lange dubbelsporige spoorwegtunnel tussen Tomteboda en het Stockholms södra (zuidstation). De plannen voorzien bovendien ook in de bouw van twee nieuwe stations, City en Odenplan. Het bestaande station Karlberg wordt gesloten. De spoorlijnen zullen gebouwd worden onder de huidige metrolijnen. Voor het station City houdt dit in onder de blauwe lijn, die op heden de diepste metrolijn is. Het voordeel is dat er sneller zal kunnen overgestapt worden tussen de Pendeltåg en de metro, in het bijzonder dan de blauwe lijn. Vandaag de dag moet men in het Centraal Station nog een heel eind lopen om deze overstap te maken.

Gegeven de diepte van de tunnels zullen er steile hellingen nodig zijn om naar de oppervlakte te geraken, tot 3% hellingsgraad. Enkel treinen zoals de huidige types die gebruikt worden voor de pendeltåg zouden dus de helling kunnen nemen. Omdat het station City op het diepste punt komt te liggen zal remmen en optrekken namelijk extra lastig zijn. Het argument om dit toch te doen is echter dat op die manier de overstaptijd met de metro en het Centraal Station zoals gezegd enorm zal verkort worden.

Citybanan zal dan in het Södra Station (zuidstation) aansluiten op de bestaande infrastructuur van de Sammanbindningsbanan en daar de twee middensporen in het station gebruiken. Vanaf Södra is het traject tot Flemingsberg, waar de directe Grödingebanan zich afsplitst, viersporig. De middensporen worden gebruikt door de Pendeltåg en zijn gescheiden van de lange afstandsporen en hebben eigen ongelijkvloerse aansluitingen met de andere spoorlijnen en stelplaatsen. Met de indienststelling van de tunnel zullen de lokale treinen volledig onafhankelijk van het ander spoorverkeer geëxploiteerd kunnen worden.

Citybanan is een belangrijke vereiste om het treinverkeer naar de omliggende provincies te verhogen en om het lokaal verkeer naar en van de voorsteden uit te bouwen. Volgens berekeningen zullen dankzij Citybanan 48 treinen per uur per richting kunnen rijden door Stockholm, wat dubbel zoveel is als vandaag.

De kostprijs is berekend op 16 miljard kronen (1,7 miljard euro), wat neerkomt op 2,5 miljard kronen per kilometer. Dit is beduidend meer dan recente spoorwegtunnels in Zweden. De reden is voor deze hogere prijs is echter dat men ten alle prijs lekkages in de tunnel wil vermijden, wat bovenliggende gebouwen kan schaden. Verder nemen de stations ook een grote hap uit het budget. Het pleegt echter een duurzame investering te worden waarvoor veel passagiers verwacht worden.

In mei 2006 bereikten de stad Stockholm, het provinciebestuur en Banverket (de railinfrastructuurbeheerder) een overeenkomst over de financiering van het project. De bouw moet starten in 2008 en de tunnel zou moeten opgeleverd worden tussen 2013 en 2016. In de periode 2005-2006 zijn reeds voorbereidende werken uitgevoerd in het Centraal Station van Stockholm, teneinde plaats te maken voor werktunnels. Toen de nieuwe coalitie onder leiding van Fredrik Reinfeldt aan de macht kwam in de herfst van 2006, kwam het bericht dat men het bestaande contract wilde verbreken om in de plaats een financiering mogelijk te maken van de sluiting van een verkeersring rond Stockholm. Na een nieuwe beoordeling gaf de regering echter het groen licht om met de start van de werken te beginnen.

Op woensdag 24 september 2008 werd het bouw contract ondertekend. De voorbereidende werkzaamheden begonnen onmiddellijk en de bouwwerkzaamheden in het begin van 2009. De bouwtijd zal ongeveer 5,5 jaar berdragen.

Werk met een shovel voor de tunnel bij Södermälarstrand, 21 maart 2009

Werkt aan Söderström tunnel bij Södermalm

Werkt aan Söderström tunnel, Söder Mälarstrand

Werkt aan Söderström tunnel, Riddarholmen

Werkt aan Söderström tunnel, Riddarholmen

Werkt aan Söderström tunnel, 10 april 2009