Sulayman ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir

Sulayman ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir (Arabic: سليمان بن عبد الله بن طاهر‎‎) was a ninth century Tahirid official in the service of the Abbasid Caliphate. He was the last Tahirid governor of Tabaristan, ruling there until he was expelled by the rebellion of al-Hasan ibn Zayd in 864, and was afterwards appointed governor of Baghdad and the Sawad in 869, a position which he held until his death in 879.

Sulayman was the son of Abdallah ibn Tahir, the governor of Khurasan from 828 until 845. According to Ibn Isfandiyar, he was appointed as governor of Tabaristan in either 851 or 854, and served there on behalf of the Tahirids of Khursasan, under whose jurisdiction the province fell. During his time in Tabaristan, Sulayman came under the influence of his deputy Muhammad ibn Aws al-Balkhi, who was able to appoint members of his family as governors of the cities and districts of the province. These last dealt with the local inhabitants in an extremely harsh manner, and Sulayman’s administration soon became accused of excessive taxation and tyranny.

By 864, Tahirid misrule in Tabaristan caused the residents of the western districts of the province to rise up in revolt. The rebels, who proclaimed the ‚Alid al-Hasan ibn Zayd as their leader, quickly gained strength, drawing support from the people of Tabaristan as well as the Daylamites of neighboring Daylam. After defeating Ibn Aws in a battle they were able to enter Amul in November 864 and then marched on Sariyah, where Sulayman was stationed. Sulayman’s troops set out to defend the city, but al-Hasan was able to send a second force to sneak past them and enter Sariyah unopposed. Sulayman then abandoned Tabaristan for Jurjan, leaving al-Hasan in control of the province.

Following his flight to Jurjan, Sulayman reassembled his troops and requested reinforcements from his nephew Muhammad ibn Tahir, the governor of Khurasan. He then marched back toward Tabaristan and won a victory over the rebels in early 865, forcing al-Hasan to retreat and allowing him to reoccupy much of the province. His fortunes soon reversed again, however, and after a fresh defeat he again fled to Jurjan. Another expedition was soon after undertaken against the rebels, but this also ended in failure, and Sulayman thereafter gave up his attempts to reclaim the province for good.

In 869 Sulayman made his way to Iraq, and presented himself before the caliph al-Mu’tazz in Samarra. On March 24, he was appointed as chief of security (shurtah) in Baghdad and the Sawad, replacing his brother Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Tahir in that position.

Upon receiving his appointment, Sulayman was forced to deal with the extremely tumultuous state of affairs in Baghdad. News of the forced abdication of al-Mu’tazz and the accession of al-Muhtadi in July 869 was met with hostility by the city’s residents, who demanded that the oath of allegiance be given to Abu Ahmad ibn al-Mutawakkil instead, and it was only after a spell of violence that the prayers were made in al-Muhtadi’s name. Sulayman also suffered from a shortage of available funds, and found it difficult to meet the demands of the soldiers for the pay of their salaries. Before long, a rivalry broke out between the Baghdadi commanders and Muhammad ibn Aws, who was in charge of the troops that had come with Sulayman from Khurasan and al-Ray, further complicating matters in the city.

After several incidents, the Baghdadi troops grew fed up with the depredations and payment demands of Muhammad’s soldiers and rioted. A fierce battle broke out between the two factions, ending with Muhammad being defeated and forced to flee the city. Sulayman then stepped in and mollified the Baghdadi commanders, while sending a message to Muhammad instructing him to return to Khurasan. The latter, however, rejected this command and set about plundering the neighborhoods of Baradan and al-Nahrawan to the north of Baghdad, which continued until the central government appeased him by appointing him over the Khurasan Road two and a half months later.

Sulayman died in August or September 879, and his positions were assigned to ‚Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah in his place.

Boitiner Steintanz

Der Boitiner Steintanz ist eine prähistorische Kult- und Begräbnisstätte zwischen dem Tarnower Ortsteil Boitin und Dreetz bei Bützow in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Heute führt ein ausgeschilderter Weg zu dem 1765 erstmals erwähnten Denkmal.

Die im Volksmund Steintanz genannte Anlage besteht aus drei benachbarten Steinkreisen und dem etwa 150 m abseits gelegenen 4. Steinkreis, mit insgesamt 30 bis zu etwa 1,6 m hohen Menhiren, die auf Lichtungen im Wald stehen. Der Hauptstein des großen Kreises, die so genannte „Brautlade“, hat 13 (11 davon sichtbar) quadratische Löcher an der Innenseite, die neuzeitlichen Ursprungs sind. Die Kreise haben Durchmesser von 8,0 m, 11,5 m, 13,2 m und 13,6 m. Ein fünfter Kreis mit einem Durchmesser von 6 m und 10 Steinen soll früher vorhanden gewesen sein. Über das Alter der Anlage lassen sich nur Schätzungen anstellen, Funde aus der Eisenzeit können auf nachträgliche Bestattungen hinweisen.

Eine Sage rankt sich um die Entstehung der Steinkreise. Im Dorf Dreetz fand vor langer Zeit eine prächtige Bauernhochzeit statt. Alle Anwesenden waren vergnügt und lustig und die Feier war in vollem Gange. Einige Bauern kamen in ihrem Übermut auf den Gedanken, mit Lebensmitteln wie Broten, Kuchen und Würsten zu kegeln. Ein Geist in der Gestalt eines alten Mannes, der beim Fest plötzlich auftauchte, forderte sie auf, diesen Frevel zu beenden. Die Bauern verspotteten den alten Mann und hörten nicht auf ihn. Als Bestrafung wurden darauf hin alle Teilnehmer des Festes in Steine verwandelt (Großer Steintanz). Auch der Brautschatz (Brautlade) blieb nicht von der Verwandlung verschont.

Ein Schäfer und sein Hund hüteten in der Nähe eine Herde Schafe. Er hatte dem Geschehen zugeschaut, sich aber nicht am Kegeln beteiligt. Der alte Mann forderte ihn auf, sofort mit seinen Schafen zu entfliehen und dabei nicht zurück zu sehen. Der Schäfer befolgte den Rat. Als er schon etwas vom Festplatz entfernt war, wurde er doch zu neugierig. Damit er das Verbot nicht brechen musste, dreht er sich nicht um, sondern bückte sich und sah zwischen seine Beine hindurch. In diesem Augenblick wurden er, sein Hund und die Herde auch zu Steinen (Kleiner Steintanz).

In der Johannisnacht (24. Juni) soll aus dem 13. Loch der Brautlade ein roter Faden heraushängen. Ein Jüngling, der mutig genug ist, den Faden herauszuziehen, kann damit alle erlösen und den Schatz der Brautlade behalten.

Die Kreise I, II und III bilden zusammen den „Großen Steintanz“. 140 Meter südöstlich davon liegt Kreis IV, der „Kleine Steintanz“. Der eine Stein des Kreises III ist in der Mitte gespalten, beide Hälften stehen nahe zusammen und doch weit genug, um vom Mittelpunkt des Kreises I (vermutlich war in Kreis I auch ein Beobachtungsstandpunkt wie in Kreis II und III) über die Mitte von Kreis III hinwegzusehen zur Mitte des Kreises IV. Außer den drei Mittelpunkten stehen mit dem „Visierstein“ von III mindestens vier Steine auf dieser Richtung, die mit der Nordrichtung den genauen Winkel 133° 11′ 29″ bildet. Der Sonnenaufgangspunkt zur Wintersonnenwende ist hier festgelegt und damit der uralte Neujahrstag. Die 28 Tage des Monats zählte man im „Großen Steintanz“. Die 13 Monate (= Mondumläufe) des Jahres wurden an den 13 Steinen des „Kleinen Steintanzes“ vermerkt. Ein zusätzlicher Stein außerhalb der Kreise zählte den 365. Tag des Jahres, also den Neujahrstag (28 Tage × 13 Monate + 1 Neujahrstag = 365 Tage). Alle 4 Jahre ging die Sonne einen Tag später auf. Am Kreis IV erfolgte eine Korrektur mit 4 Steinen, die um den Kreis angeordnet sind. So wurde jedes 4. Jahr die Wintersonnenwende einen Tag später gefeiert oder die Feier wurde um einen Tag verlängert. Durch die Anordnung der zusätzlichen Steine wurde diese Beobachtung festgehalten und gezählt. Dadurch wurde der 1/4 Tag ausgeglichen und das Jahr war durch Beobachtung auf 365 1/4 Tage pro Jahr festgelegt.

Koordinaten:

Mill Valley Film Festival

Since founding the Mill Valley Film Festival in 1977, Mark Fishkin has shepherded this once small, three-day showcase into an eleven-day, internationally acclaimed cinema event presenting a wide variety of new films from around the world in an engaged, community setting. An annual, non-competitive film festival presented by the California Film Institute, MVFF is based in Mill Valley, California and San Rafael, California, in the heart of Marin County. The 39th Mill Valley Film Festival will take place October 6–16, 2016.

For nearly four decades, the world-renowned Mill Valley Film Festival (MVFF) has maintained its position as a vital showcase of the global film community, attracting iconic red-carpet talent, burgeoning filmmakers, passionate audiences and astutely curated premieres often overlooked by larger festivals. An in-demand destination for film lovers, drawn by unmatched locale and a diverse program of mainstream studio features and new visions from independent voices from around the world, MVFF also hosts an exciting array of filmmaker and industry conversations, panels, parties and live music performances, featuring the most acclaimed emerging and veteran actors, filmmakers and musicians of our time.

A destination event for cinephiles everywhere, and known for launching new films and creating awards season buzz, MVFF has earned a deserved reputation as a “filmmaker’s festival” by celebrating the best in American, independent and world cinema alongside high profile and prestigious award contenders. As the only prominent fall film festival in the San Francisco Bay Area, MVFF is also an important industry resource—both for its emphasis on films that have not yet secured US distribution and for fall launches and northern California Academy Awards campaigns.

In October 1977, Mark Fishkin and fellow film buffs Rita Cahill and Lois Cole organized a three-day film festival. It featured three film tributes, Francis Ford Coppola’s The Rain People and George Lucas‘ Filmmaker. „We did a very innovative program that I would not be embarrassed to repeat today,“ Fishkin said. The first official festival took place in August 1978.

The San Francisco Bay Area continues to be a significant market for independent and international film, and MVFF provides a forum for introducing new films to West coast audiences. Over it’s nearly 40 year history, MVFF has attracted a strong roster of talent, including Robin Williams, Jim Jarmusch, Kevin Smith, Jon Voight, Roberto Benigni, Alfre Woodard, Gael García Bernal, Helen Mirren, Steve McQueen, Annette Benning, Glenn Close, James Franco, Edward James Olmos, Jared Leto, Lily Taylor, Mike Leigh, Ben Stiller, Carey Mulligan, Mira Nair, Dustin Hoffman, Geoffrey Rush, Marcel Ophuls, Jane Russell, Les Blank, Barbet Schroeder, James Woods, Sissy Spacek, Jonathan Winters, Robert Altman, Nicholas Ray, Roger Corman, Jeanne Moreau, Karen Black, Barry Levinson, Sarah Silverman, Costa-Gavros, Jan Troell, William H. Macy, Milos Forman, Dianne Weist, Edward Norton, Uma Thurman, Alejandro González Iñárritu, Alan Arkin, Amanda Plummer, Darren Aronofsky, Laura Linney, Gena Rowlands, Albert Maysles, Donald Sutherland, John Sayles, Bradley Cooper, Jeff Daniels, Jean-Pierre Jeunet, Helena Bonham Carter, Derek Jacobi, Ismail Merchant, Caroll Baker, Malcolm McDowell, Joan Allen, Dick Cavett, Hilary Swank, Jason Reitman, John Hawkes, Laura Dern, Elle Fanning, Felicity Huffman, Clive Owen, Eddie Redmayne, Forest Whitaker, Tim Robbins, Billy Bob Thornton, Sir Ian McKellen, Woody Harrelson, Harry Dean Stanton, Waldo Salt, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Ang Lee and Brie Larson.

Each year, the 11-day festival welcomes more than 200 filmmakers and 60,000 attendees from around the world. Festival sections include the Official Premiere Selection, World Cinema, US Cinema, Valley of the Docs, Children’s FilmFest, 5@5 (daily shorts programs) and Active Cinema. The festival also features tributes and spotlights to acclaimed filmmakers, screenwriters and actors. Screenings are usually held at the Christopher B Smith Rafael Film Center in San Rafael, the Sequoia Theatre in Mill Valley, the Cinema in Corte Madera, and the Lark Theatre in Larkspur.

Screen International has named Mill Valley Film Festival a Top 10 US film festival.

2013 Sponsored by

Overall Audience Favorite:

Audience Favorite – US Cinema:

Audience Favorite – US Cinema Runner Up: DALLAS BUYERS CLUB ()

Audience Favorite – US Cinema Indie:

Audience Favorite – US Cinema Indie Runner Up:

Audience Favorite – World Cinema:

Audience Favorite – World Cinema Runner Up:

Coordinates:

Élections législatives fidjiennes de 1992

Des élections législatives ont lieu aux Fidji du 23 au 30 mai 1992, pour renouveler l’ensemble des soixante-dix sièges de la Chambre des Représentants, chambre basse du Parlement.

Les députés sont élus avec un mandat de cinq ans. Le gouvernement (premier ministre et ministres) émane de sa majorité.

Le général Sitiveni Rabuka avait pris le pouvoir par un coup d’État militaire en 1987, renversant le gouvernement travailliste du premier ministre Timoci Bavadra, issu des élections précédentes en 1987. Alléguant la nécessité de sauvegarder la suprématie de la population autochtone, Rabuka avait restreint les droits politiques des Indo-Fidjiens, descendants de migrants venus d’Inde à la fin du XIXe siècle et au début du XXe siècle. En particulier, une nouvelle Constitution en 1990 garantissait une majorité de sièges au Parlement pour les autochtones. Sous cette Constitution (abrogée par la suite en 1997), les électeurs catégorisés comme autochtones élisent trente-sept députés, nécessairement autochtones, et les électeurs catégorisés comme ‚Indiens‘ élisent vingt-sept députés issus de leur communauté, malgré la quasi-parité démographique entre ces deux principales communautés. Un siège revient aux autochtones polynésiens de Rotuma, et les cinq autres sièges sont réservés aux représentants des autres minorités, confondues – c’est-à-dire notamment les citoyens d’origine ethnique ‚européenne‘ ou ‚asiatique‘ (autre qu’indienne). En outre, la tête du gouvernement est réservée aux Fidjiens autochtones.

Avant le coup d’État, les Fidji étaient un royaume du Commonwealth ; la Constitution de 1990 voulue par la dictature militaire instaure une république parlementaire, où le premier ministre demeure issu d’une majorité parlementaire élue, et où un président de la République remplace le Gouverneur général au poste essentiellement symbolique de chef de l’État.

À la suite du coup d’État, il n’y a pas de Parlement sortant ; le scrutin de 1992 vise à restaurer une forme de démocratie, dans le cadre toutefois de la nouvelle Constitution qui garantie la suprématie politique des représentants autochtones. Sitiveni Rabuka avait renoncé au pouvoir après l’avoir pris par la force des armes, et de 1987 à 1992 le pays est ainsi administré par un ‚gouvernement de transition‘ sous l’autorité de Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, „père de l’indépendance“ – avec Rabuka toutefois comme vice-premier ministre à partir de 1991. Rabuka brigue désormais un mandat électoral pour prendre la direction du pays, à la tête de son parti Soqosoqo ni Vakavulewa ni Taukei (‚parti politique autochtone‘, SVT). Ce parti obtient le soutien explicite du Grand Conseil des Chefs, qui exerce une grande influence sur la population autochtone. Face à lui, les deux principaux partis d’opposition se sont unis en une coalition, fragilisée toutefois par divers désaccords : le Parti de la Fédération nationale (NFP), représentant principalement la population rurale indo-fidjienne, et le Parti travailliste fidjien (FLP), principal mouvement de centre-gauche, multi-ethnique et issu des forces syndicales, mais soutenu surtout par des Indo-Fidjiens. Le Parti des Électeurs généraux (GVP) représente les intérêts des ‚petites‘ minorités ethniques (électeurs blancs, asiatiques, métis…), mais ne se place pas dans l’opposition. Sakeasi Butadroka, personnalité de longue date de l’extrême droite autochtone ultra-nationaliste, partisan de la déportation de tous ‚Indiens‘, jugeant Rabuka trop modéré, se présente à la tête de son Front nationaliste fidjien unifié. Enfin, et a contrario, Apisai Tora fonde un parti appelé Congrès national, présenté comme modéré et multiethnique.

Une scission politique s’opère nettement entre les communautés ethniques. Le SVT de Rabuka remporte une majorité écrasante dans les circonscriptions autochtones (30 sièges sur 37), où la coalition d’opposition ne remporte aucun siège. A contrario, les Travaillistes et le NFP remportent l’ensemble des sièges ‚indiens‘. Le GVP obtient l’ensemble des cinq sièges accordés aux ‚électeurs généraux‘. Le Congrès national obtient 8 % des voix, mais aucun siège. Pour gouverner, Rabuka doit avoir la confiance d’au moins trente-cinq députés ; il l’obtient grâce au soutien du GVP, ainsi que de l’unique député rotumien (sans étiquette).

Alexander Duff, 1. Duke of Fife

Alexander William George Duff, 1. Duke of Fife, KG, KT, GCVO, PC (* 10. November 1849 in Edinburgh; † 12. Januar 1912 in Assuan) war ein schottischer Adeliger. Er war der Ehemann von Prinzessin Louise, der ältesten Tochter des Prince of Wales, später Eduard VII., und Prinzessin Alexandra von Dänemark.

Duff wurde als ältester Sohn von James Duff, 5. Earl Fife, und dessen Frau Agnes, einer Tochter von William Hay, 18. Earl of Erroll, in Edinburgh geboren. Duff besuchte das Eton College und war von 1873 bis 1879 Mitglied des House of Commons für den schottischen Wahlkreis Elginshire und Nairnshire. Von 1872 bis 1902 war er Lord Lieutenant der Grafschaft Elgin. 1879 erbte er von seinem Vater den Titel Earl Fife, der der Peerage of Ireland zugeordnet war. In den Jahren 1880/81 war er Captain der Gentlemen at Arms. In der Folgezeit wurde der Earl von Königin Victoria mit diplomatischen Missionen beauftragt. Für seine Dienste wurde ihm 1885 von der Königin der Titel des Earl of Fife in der Peerage of the United Kingdom verliehen, mit dem, anders als bei dem bisherigen Titel, automatisch ein Sitz im House of Lords verbunden war.

Am 27. Juli 1889 heiratete der Earl Prinzessin Louise, die älteste Tochter des damaligen Prince of Wales in der Privatkapelle des Buckingham Palace. Königin Victoria erhob ihn daraufhin zum Duke of Fife und Marquess of Macduff in der Peerage of the United Kingdom. Aus der Ehe stammten drei Kinder:

Die Familie wohnte in London und auf den schottischen Besitzungen des Herzogs Mar Lodge, Aberdeenshire, und Mountcoffer House, Banff. Die 1889 verliehenen Titel konnten, wie üblich, nur auf männliche leibliche Abkömmlinge übergehen. Als erkennbar wurde, dass das Paar keinen entsprechenden Titelerben haben werde, verlieh Königin Victoria dem Duke im Jahre 1900 die Dukedom nochmals mit dem nachgeordneten Titel Earl of Macduff, nun mit der Bestimmung, dass er auch an die erstgeborene Tochter und deren männliche leibliche Nachkommen übergehen könne. Sowohl bei der Krönung des Schwiegervaters am 9. August 1902 als auch bei derjenigen des Schwagers Georg V. am 22. Juni 1911 fungierte der Duke als Lord High Constable.

Im Jahre 1905 wurde der Duchess der Titel Princess Royal von ihrem Vater, nunmehr König Edward VII., verliehen. Es handelt sich hierbei um die höchste Ehrung, die ein nicht regierendes weibliches Mitglied der Britischen Königsfamilie erhalten kann. Gleichzeitig wurden die beiden Töchter abweichend von den allgemeinen Regeln, wonach dieses Privileg nur Kindern von Söhnen des Monarchen zusteht, zu Prinzessinnen von Großbritannien und Irland gemacht, sie erhielten das Adelsprädikat Hoheit (Highness) verliehen; in der Protokollarischen Rangordnung folgten sie unmittelbar nach der engeren königlichen Familie vor allen anderen Adeligen.

Bei einer Reise nach Ägypten erlitten der Duke und seine Familie im Dezember 1911 vor der Küste Marokkos Schiffbruch. Obgleich niemand unmittelbar verletzt wurde, erkrankte der Duke, möglicherweise deswegen, in Ägypten an Pleuritis. Er verstarb im Januar 1912 in Assuan. Das Dukedom ging auf die Tochter Alexandra über, die den Titel damit aus eigenem Recht trug.

Best Love Song

Best Love Song ist ein Lied des US-amerikanischen Contemporary-R&B-Musikers T-Pain im Duett mit Chris Brown. Es wurde am 22. März 2011 als erste Single aus T-Pains viertem Studioalbum Revolver veröffentlicht. Nach dem Erscheinen erreichte er Platz 33 in den Billboard Hot 100 sowie Rang 40 im Vereinigten Königreich, wohingegen er in Deutschland nicht in die Charts einstieg.

Das Lied wurde am 22. März 2011 als erste Single des Albums Revolver veröffentlicht, welches im Dezember desselben Jahres erschien. Vorausgegangen waren der Single die drei Promo-Tonträger „Take Your Shirt Off“, „Reverse Girl“ und „Rap Song“, welche letztlich jedoch nicht auf der Titelliste des Albums zu finden waren. Geschrieben wurde der Titel von T-Pain, Brown und Tramaine Winfrey, der unter seinem Künstlernamen Young Fyre auch als Produzent des Liedes fungierte.

Am 7. Februar veröffentlichte T-Pain auf seiner Twitter-Seite die Lieder „Best Love Song“ und „Separated“. Dabei leakte er sie, da zuvor bereits einige Ausschnitte mit schlechter Qualität ins Internet gelangt waren. Dabei bemängelte er auch den fehlenden Respekt für „diese Art von Kunst“.

Am 25. Mai 2011 wurde das Musikvideo, bei dem Erik White Regie führte, erstmals gezeigt. Die Premiere fand bei Vevo statt. In dem Clip geht es um ein Mädchen, was sowohl Brown als auch T-Pain versuchen, zu beeindrucken. Nach einer Anfangssequenz, in der sich beide mit ihr unterhalten, spielt sich der Hauptteil des Videos auf einer Bühne ab, wo die beiden Musiker zusammen einen Auftritt haben. Ihre Angebetete, welche im Publikum mit anderen Zuschauern tanzt, verlässt am Ende des Clips jedoch mit einem fremden Mann den Club.

In Deutschland, der Schweiz und in Österreich stieg das Lied nicht in die Charts ein. In Großbritannien erreichte der Titel Platz 40 der offiziellen Charts, in denen es sich insgesamt zwei Wochen lang halten konnte. In den Billboard Hot 100 platzierte er sich auf Position 33, den Einstieg in die Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs schaffte er jedoch nicht.

Goldene Schallplatte

Chris Brown • Exclusive • Graffiti • F.A.M.E. • Fortune • X • Royalty

In My Zone (Rhythm & Streets) • Fan of a Fan (mit Tyga) • In My Zone 2 • Boy in Detention

Shortie Like Mine • Shawty Get Loose • Get Like Me • What Them Girls Like • Make the World Go Round • Freeze • Head of My Class • Work That! • Drop It Low • Back to the Crib • Make a Movie • Get Back Up • Champion • My Last • One Night Stand • Best Love Song • Pot of Gold • Body 2 Body • Better with the Lights Off • Legendary • Another Round • International Love • Why Stop Now • Birthday Cake • Right by My Side • Take It to the Head • I Can Only Imagine • Amazing • Put It Down • Something About You • Celebration • Everyday Birthday • Ready • As Your Friend • Beat It • Fuck for the Road • Show Me • Main Chick • Hold You Down • Only

Up Close and Personal Tour • The UCP Exclusive Tour • Fan Appreciation Tour • F.A.M.E. Tour • Carpe Diem Tour

Diskografie • Auszeichnungen und Nominierungen • Musikvideos

Legend of the Five Rings

Rob Vaux (Brand Lead)
Bryan Reese (Lead Designer)
Steve Argyle / Adrian Burton (Art Director)
Shawn Carman (Lead Writer)
Roger Giner-Sorolla (Rules Lead)
Dan Dineen (Major Events Manager)
Seth Anthony (Community Organizer)
Dave Laderoute (Imperial Herald Editor)
Josh Githens (Sales and Marketing Lead)

Legend of the Five Rings (often abbreviated L5R) is a fictional setting created by John Zinser, Dave Seay, Dave Williams, and John Wick and published by Alderac Entertainment Group in 1995. The setting primarily involves the fictional empire of Rokugan, though some additional areas and cultures have been discussed. Rokugan is based roughly on feudal Japan with influences from other East Asian cultures such as China, Mongolia and Korea. This setting is the basis for the Legend of the Five Rings Collectible Card Game as well as the Legend of the Five Rings Role-Playing Game. Legend of the Five Rings was also the „featured campaign setting“ of the Oriental Adventures expansion to the third edition of Dungeons & Dragons, though this book is now out of print.

The timeline of the Legends of the Five Rings setting can be influenced by players of the collectible card game, and to a lesser extent the role-playing game, with the winners of major tournaments making pivotal decisions that become canonical history in future products. The most significant example of this was the Race for the Throne event, which took place through 2007 and 2008, which allowed players of both the collectible card game and the role-playing game to affect the storyline of their Clan by earning points in various Spheres of influence.

L5R was acquired by Fantasy Flight Games in 2015.

The Legend of the Five Rings collectible card game is played by two or more players (in tournaments, generally two), each with two decks of at least 40 cards each (formerly at least 30 cards each). The game continues until a player has reached one of several different victory conditions, at which point that player is declared the winner. Victory conditions include winning militarily (destroying all provinces of one’s opponent), by honour (reaching a certain number of honour points), dishonour (forcing one’s opponent under a certain honour point threshold), through enlightenment (by putting cards called rings into play) or via a couple of special cards which essentially mean „game won“.

In the game’s tournaments players can affect the storyline of the game, their deck construction directly contributing to the lives (or deaths) of the characters involved. This is in turn reflected in future expansions of the game, and the mechanics of the cards therein. The full current rules of the collectible card game can be found at the . The Kotei Season runs generally February through June of each year, where regional tournaments occur around the world. Each season incorporates a major event currently going on in the Emerald Empire, with each event determining at least one factor of the larger story. Kotei winners are pre-qualified into major events such as Gen Con and the European Championships, allowing them to skip the qualifying rounds.

Legend of the Five Rings has many cards that are directly influenced by players and their actions. These cards often feature an attribution on the vertical right side of the card, which includes the name of the player, the event, and the date involved in the creation of the card or theme behind the card. Having your name on a card is a goal of many players of Legend of the Five Rings.

The L5R CCG is currently published only in English. Previously the game was also published in German, French and Spanish.

The Legend of the Five Rings Role-Playing Game is a role-playing game that requires one person to be game master and any number of other people to play different characters. As with all role-playing games, there is no „winner“ or „loser“, and the players do not generally compete against each other. Instead, the players work together to find a solution to some problem which the game master has presented their characters. The setting allows for stories which are oriented around action, courtly diplomacy or a mix of the two.

The Legend of the Five Rings Role-Playing Game is currently in its fourth edition. All four editions used an original ruleset designed specifically for the setting.[citation needed] To distinguish this game system from the d20 System mechanics (see below), it is often referred to as the d10, „classic“, or the „Roll & Keep“ („R&K“) system.

In 2004 a live-action roleplay version of the game was released. Live-Action roleplaying has long been a major part of Legend of the Five Rings at events such as Gen Con. Heroes of Rokugan, a fan-run group organizes yearly LARPs as part of their own storyline.[citation needed]

Clan War was a miniature based model strategy game produced by AEG, whose story line is derived from the Legend of the Five Rings setting. This game is currently out of print. In 2010, however, a limited selection of the metal miniatures used to play the game was released by Valiant Enterprises Ltd. A second Legend of the Five Rings board game titled Art of War has been demonstrated several times but never released.

In 2011 AEG released a board game titled War of Honor, which utilized the same cards as the collectible card game in a simplified game. Four complete decks were included with the game, making it self-contained, however additional cards can also be included. A second game, titled Ninja: Legend of the Scorpion Clan was released the same year. This is a board game for 2-4 players in which one player takes the role of a Scorpion Clan ninja attempting to infiltrate a Lion Clan compound, with the other players defending it.

In 2013 a Legend of the Five Rings themed version of the card game Love Letter was released. Using a deck of 16 cards and taking roughly an hour to play, the game simulates the courtly intrigue surrounding the attempts of several players to court a princess.

In May 2009, Death at Koten was published, a graphic novel written by Shawn Carman which takes place in the Legend of the Five Rings setting. It revolves around the death of Hida Kisada and the events that take place as a result of his assassination.

Legend of the Five Rings is set primarily in the fictional land of Rokugan (also known as the Emerald Empire), based on feudal Japan with influences from other East Asian cultures, where samurai, shugenja, and trained courtiers vie for control of the noble courts. Rokugan itself is home to mostly humans, divided into a society based on clans, with eight Great Clans and various minor ones, though at the moment they are all in confusion, and are vying for one of their members to be the new Emperor. They are regularly threatened by evil plots from within, but the main threat still lies to the southwest of Rokugan: the deadly wastes of the Shadowlands, where demonic hordes roam.

The world of L5R, which contains Rokugan, also contains the nations of the Burning Sands as well as the Ivory Kingdoms. A few foreign visitors from these lands have been featured in Legend of the Five Rings, but have not played a major role in the storyline. Much is unknown of these lands, mostly due to the extreme xenophobia of the Rokugani, shown in the story by an Imperial mandate of non-interaction with Gaijin.

The following is from D. J. Trindle’s post to the L5R e-mail newsgroups regarding the future – and the past – of the role-playing game. It was entitled „Whither the L5R RPG?“ and is archived in full at

Alderac Entertainment Group (AEG), in partnership with Isomedia, first designed and published the L5R collectible card game in 1995. Eventually, it became obvious that L5R would greatly benefit from the sort of promotion, marketing, and production that costs a lot of money. Some of the original AEG and Isomedia folks found interested investors and formed the Five Rings Publishing Group (FRPG), which purchased the intellectual property (IP) that is L5R.

FRPG took over production and marketing, while AEG continued to design the game. In 1997, AEG licensed the role-playing publication rights for L5R from FRPG, and published the first edition of the L5R RPG. The fans liked it enough to vote it the Best RPG of 1997 at the Origins Awards, and the core book went through four printings while spawning two dozen sourcebooks and add-on products.

In 1997, FRPG was purchased by Wizards of the Coast. The existing licenses remained in place, so the same creative team continued work on Legend of the Five Rings, AEG continued publishing the RPG, and Wizards began publishing the card game. In 1999, Legend of the Five Rings changed hands once more when Wizards was purchased by toy-making giant Hasbro (however, „Wizards“ continued operations under their original name). The previous licenses were still in effect, so changes to the games and the development teams as a result were unnoticeable. Wizards of the Coast re-released Oriental Adventures (a long out-of-print AD&D supplement), changing the setting from the original Kara-Tur to Rokugan, and updating the supplement to the d20 rules. Several of the following sourcebooks provided dual (d20 & d10/R&K) rulesets.

In late 2000, however, speculation about the future of Legend of the Five Rings – especially the RPG – began to run rampant after Hasbro, during a string of decisions that greatly upset the leadership at Wizards, decided to sell Legend of the Five Rings two years before AEG’s long-standing license was due to expire. Any fears turned out to be unfounded when, less than half a year later, AEG won the bidding war for Legend of the Five Rings.

Until 2015, AEG owned the intellectual property of Legend of the Five Rings. They designed and published the card game and the role-playing game. AEG released Lotus Edition for the CCG in late 2005, beginning the Age of Enlightenment story arc. Samurai Edition was released in July 2007 and included the Race for the Throne story arc. Celestial Edition was released in mid-2009, followed by Emperor Edition in early 2012 and Ivory Edition two years after that, in 2014. The final arc designed by AEG, Onyx Edition, was to be released in 2016.

On September 11th, 2015, AEG and Fantasy Flight Games jointly announced that the intellectual property had been sold to FFG. A new version of the card game (incompatible with the CCG) is due to be released as a Living Card Game at Gen Con 2017.

There have been five ‚eras‘ when it comes to the L5R Story Lead/Team.

The previous lead was Rich Wulf, assisted by Shawn Carman. Wulf’s works include Way of the Wolf, Bells of the Dead, Rokugan, and many other Legend of the Five Rings products. Large contributions to the Legend of the Five Rings series were also made by Ree Soesbee, who was lead writer of Legend of the Five Rings prior to Rich Wulf, and John Wick before her who along with the founding members of Five Rings Publishing Group created the world. While the property was controlled by Wizards of the Coast, the creation of the Four Winds arc (starting with Gold Edition) was helmed by Paul Allen Timm and Rob Heinsoo with contributions from Andy Heckt and Frank Chafe.

Currently, Shawn Carman is the head of the Legend of the Five Rings Story Team. He has had great success at incorporating player effects into the game in a smooth manner, regardless of how odd the results of a tournament may be to the setting of the game. His team includes Nancy Sauer, Brian Yoon, Yoon Ha Lee, and Robert Denton with Fred Wan acting as co-lead and continuity editor. The team formerly included Rusty Priske and Lucas Twyman.

One legal issue for Legend of the Five Rings involved the use of a symbol that consisted of five interlocking rings, arranged in essentially a star pattern. This symbol was used for several years in the role-playing game and featured prominently on the backings of the cards in the collectible card game. The United States Olympic Committee sued Wizards of the Coast, who at that time owned Legend of the Five Rings, over the logo, because a special Act of the U.S. Congress gave them the exclusive rights to any symbol consisting of five interlocking rings.

The only way to completely resolve the issue was to quit using the symbol. For the role-playing game this meant very little, but for the collectible card game it meant that the backing of the cards had to be redesigned, which left players with a mix of cards that essentially resulted in marked decks. In an attempt to appease the players, Wizards released the first set with the different backs – Spirit Wars – bundled with opaque sleeves that would obscure the designs on the backs of the cards, allowing players to use any mix of cards in their decks.

List of smoking bans in Australia

The following is a list of smoking bans in Australia, implemented by the federal, state and territory, and local governments.

Federal law bans smoking in all Australian Commonwealth government buildings, public transport, airports, and international and domestic flights. Further bans are in place but are governed by individual states. Currently all Australian states and territories have banned smoking in vehicles with children, in some enclosed public places, particularly most major company-owned workplaces, and most enclosed restaurants. Tobacco products cannot be sold or supplied to persons under 18 years old, but there is no legal age to use them.

The Australian Government has made very few laws on electronic cigarettes and leaves it up to the states.

In 2013, around 13.3% of people aged 18 and older in Australia were daily smokers. By state/territory, the Australian Capital Territory had the lowest percentage of daily smokers in the country at 9.9%, and the Northern Territory the highest at around 22.2% then Tasmania at 21% followed by Queensland at 20%.

On 6 December 1995, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government was the first jurisdictional government in Australia to introduce no smoking in cafes and restaurants. Since 1 December 2006 a smoking ban has applied to all enclosed public places.

The ACT Government introduced laws to prohibit smoking in most outdoor eating areas in the territory starting December 2010. Exceptions to this rule can be made but only under certain guidelines. A „Designated Outdoor Smoking Area“ (DOSA) requirements include; may not encompass more than 50% of the outdoor area, must be separated from smoke-free areas by no less than 4 metres or a non-transparent fixed wall barrier at least 3 metres high.

There is a government proposal to ban smoking within correctional facilities.

The New South Wales Government introduced a ban on smoking in enclosed public areas in the State, except for bars and in licensed premises, on 6 September 2001. The Government introduced a total „enclosed space“ ban in New South Wales on 1 July 2007. In this state, a public place is considered substantially enclosed only if the total area of ceiling and wall surfaces are more than 75% of its total notional ceiling and wall area. Windows and doors may be counted as open space only if they are locked open to the outside for the duration of trading hours. 10% of the total ceiling and wall area must remain open to the elements at all times.

Since 1 July 2009, smoking in a car with a child under the age of 16 is against the law. The Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2008 creates a new offence of smoking in a car with a child under 16 years of age in the vehicle. A $250 on-the-spot fine applies to the driver and any passenger who breaks the law. This is enforced by NSW Police. However licence premises may set aside an outdoor smoking area for drinking only and must be 4 metres away from restaurant tables and no more than 75% enclosed.

Since 7 January 2013, smoking is banned at public (outdoor) playgrounds within 10 m of children’s play equipment, in open areas of public swimming pools, at major sports grounds, within 4 m of any building open to the public and at public transport stops (including outdoor parts of railway stations, bus stops, light rail stops and taxi ranks). Bans on smoking within 4 metres of a pedestrian access point to a public building will include seated areas restaurants and cafés since 6 July 2015.

The New South Wales Government banned smoking at correctional facilities within the state from 10 August 2015.

Smoking is banned in all government buildings, tour buses, taxis and flights to and from Norfolk Island. There is no law on smoking in restaurants, but many are smoke-free; however, they often have a dedicated smoking room for people that wish to smoke. Smoking is permitted in all bars and licensed premises. Resorts and motels have smoking rooms and areas for smokers.

A ban on smoking in all enclosed areas of restaurants, licensed clubs and pubs came into force in the Northern Territory on 2 January 2010. Licensed venues can have designated areas which lets them have up to 50% of the restaurant or bar to be a smoking area. In the Northern Territory it is common for bars in rural areas to disobey the smoking bans that the government has put into place although fines can be issued ranging from $1000 to $8000. The Northern Territory Government became the first jurisdiction to ban smoking in correctional facilities when it introduced a total ban on cigarettes in the institutions on 1 July 2013.

The Queensland Government prohibits smoking in all pubs, clubs, restaurants and workplaces in Queensland, as well as in commercial outdoor eating and drinking areas and in outdoor public places (e.g., patrolled beaches, children’s playground equipment, major sport stadiums, and within 4 metres of non-residential building entrances). Since 1 July 2006, premises holding a hotel, club or casino liquor licence can designate up to 50% of the outdoor liquor licensed area as a smoking and drinking area. In this area no food or drink can be served, no food can be consumed, no entertainment can be offered and there must be no gaming machines provided. A „buffer“, which can be either a 2-metre-wide area or a 2.1-metre-high screen that is impervious to smoke, must be on the area’s perimeter wherever it is adjacent to other parts of the outdoor area usually accessed by patrons. Premises that choose to have such an area must have a smoking management plan for the premises that complies with legislative requirements. For all other outdoor eating or drinking places, smoking has been prohibited since 1 July 2006. From 1 January 2010, the Queensland Government banned smoking in cars where children under the age of 16 are present. In May 2014, the Queensland Government became the first state government to ban tobacco in correctional facilities.

A total enclosed public place smoking ban was introduced in South Australia on 1 November 2007. However, under the SA Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997, a place or area is only „enclosed“ if it is fully enclosed or is at least partially covered by a ceiling and has walls such that the total area of the ceiling and wall surfaces exceeds 70 per cent of the total notional ceiling and wall area. It is illegal to smoke in the car while children (under 18) are in the car. Correctional facilities in South Australia have banned smoking since January 1, 2015. The South Australian government has announced that smoking will be banned in outdoor eating areas and restaurants by July 2016 (second last state to do so).

Tasmania was the first Australian state to introduce a total indoor smoking ban in January 2006. As of 1 January 2008, smoking in cars with passengers under the age of 18 is banned and will incur a $110 on the spot fine. (The laws would be strictly enforced only after a three-month education period.). Smoking has been banned in all outdoor restaurants since 2012, however, outdoor areas of licensed premises are exempted from the ban. Tasmanian Correctional facilities have banned smoking since January 1, 2015.

The Victorian Government introduced a total enclosed public place smoking ban in Victoria on 1 July 2007. Smoking is permitted in non-enclosed dining or drinking areas if the area has a roof and walls that cover no more than 75% of the total notional wall area (i.e. if the combined wall and roof space is 25% open to the outdoors). Smoking is also allowed in: balconies; verandas; smoking rooms in motels; private business; courtyards; outdoor shopping malls; marquees; and footpaths. Smoking is permitted in high roller rooms and certain smoking rooms of the Crown Casino. The sale of tobacco products to people under 18 is prohibited but there is no age limit to legally possess these products.[citation needed] A ban on smoking in cars carrying children (aged under 18) became effective since 1 January 2010. A ban on smoking within 4 metres school entrances became effective in May 2015. Smoking is prohibited on all areas of train stations and raised platform tram stops as of 1 March 2014. Victorian Correctional facilities have banned smoking since July 1, 2015. In April 2016 the Victorian Government announced that outdoor smoking bans would only include outdoor areas where food is served and that they have no plans of straightening the laws regarding cafes, outdoor bars and drinking areas.

Western Australia was the second Australian state to ban smoking in all indoor areas of pubs, bars and clubs since 31 July 2006. Smoking bans apply in outdoor eating areas, where people eat and/or drink sitting at tables (e.g. restaurants, cafes, delis, lunch-bars and hotels). Smoking is banned within 10 meters of any children’s playground equipment. Smoking is prohibited “between the flags” on a beach in patrolled swimming areas. It is also illegal to smoke in a car if a child (aged under 17) is inside. Liquor licensed premises that are not subject to a restaurant licence may set aside up to 50 per cent of outdoor eating areas as smoking zones. Smoking is permitted in the international room and pearl room at the Burswood Casino. The Health Minister has regulated to allow footpath drinking without food to accommodate smokers.

There is a current government proposal to ban smoking within correctional facilities.

Junije Palmotić

Junije (Džono) Palmotić, (also Giunio or Junius Palmotta) (?1606 – 1657) was a Croatian baroque writer, poet and dramatist from the Republic of Ragusa (now Dubrovnik). He was a member of the Palmotić noble family.

Alongside Vinko Pribojević and Juraj Križanić, he was an early pioneer of the ideas of Slavic unity. He was a Ragusan patrician, member of the Palmotić noble family. Palmotić’s parents were Džore (Georgius) Palmotić and Ora (Uršula) née Gradić, who was related to the Gundulić family. Ore was close cousin of Dživa, the mother of great poet Ivan Gundulić, which made Junije his nephew. Ore and Džive were the daughters of two Gradi’s (brothers Pavlo and Miho). He had an older brother Džore and younger Ivan, who died young in his childhood.

Little is known about his schooling, but he may have attended city school as it was mandatory for male nobles. It is known that he attended a private school opened in 1619 by the Jesuits and whose lecturers included, in the next few generations, Ivan Gradić, Ignjat Tudišević, Marin Gundulić, Ivan Dražić and Bartol Kašić. As Palmotić’s teachers in that school, Stjepan Gradić especially mentions Ignjat Tudiševuć and a Sienese Italian, Camillo Gori.

Aged 18, he became a member of the Great Council in the Republic of Ragusa. He began to write while still young, writing in continuation of the tradition of Ivan Gundulić inspired by Ovid, Virgil, Tasso and Ariosto. Although influenced by the Latin literary tradition, Palmotić wrote in his native Croatian language, as well as translating libretti from Italian. He also translated the Christias di Girolamo Vida, the Christiade, an ‚Illyrian‘ poem in 24 verses, that was posthumously published in Rome in 1670.

Although his poetry was melodramatic and dealt primarily with mythological topics, his drama focused on contemporary Dubrovnik, particularly the life of the aristocracy.

His nephew Stjepan Gradić, ambassador and Vatican librarian, wrote about his life, supplying precious material to future biographers.

All the works of Palmotić were published by the end of the 19th century by the Croatian Cultural Association.

Palmotić’s notable works include :

Four of his important dramas are Pavlimir, Danica, Bisernica and Captislava. Narratives connected with the founding of Dubrovnik inspired his Pavlimir. This is a sort of Ragusan „Aeneid,“ Pavlimir corresponding to Aeneas. He comes from abroad, founds the city of Dubrovnik, marries the beautiful Margareta, whom he discovers there, and becomes otac slovenskog naroda (the father of the Slavonic people). The Danica is a dramatized episode from Ariosto’s „Orlando Furioso“ (IV-VI), transplanted and acclimatized to the Bosnian and Ragusan soil. Danica is the enslaved daughter of the Bosnian king, Ostoja. She was saved by the Ragusan knight Matijas, who later became the ban of Croatia. Some motifs of this play are akin to Shakespeare’s comedy „Much Ado About Nothing.“ Captislava is less historic and more fantastic; the chief rdles are played by ghosts and nymphs. Captislava (read: Tsaptislava) is the daughter of the King of Captat (Tsaptat (Cavtat) or Epidaurum). She is in love with the Hungarian prince, Gradimir, but the father wants her to marry a Serbian prince. A nymph helps her in this cabal, and she elopes with the Hungarian prince, while her sister marries the Serbian prince.2 The Bisernica is still more fantastic. It is virtually the continuation of the Captislava, and almost all important roles are played by vilenice (nymphs) and vilenici (dragons).

In addition to these four dramas, in which Palmotta celebrated the exploits of Slavic heroes, he wrote several imitations based on Latin and Italian sources. Thus the material for his Allina was taken from Ariosto, and for the Armida from Tasso. The mythological play Atalanta is based on Ovid’s „Metamorphoses“ (bk. X), and the NatecaAe Ujata i

‚On the text of this drama, see the article of R. Brandt, „Prinos k tekstu Palmotta Captislave,“ in the Grada za povest knizevnosti hrvatske, IV (1904), pp. 150 ff.

König-Friedrich-Wilhelm-I.-Denkmal (Königsberg)

Das König-Friedrich-Wilhelm-I.-Denkmal in Königsberg stand in einer Nische der Zyklopenmauer auf dem Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz an der Südfront des Schlosses. Das Standbild wurde von Johann Heinrich Meißner 1730 erstellt. Es zeigt den König Friedrich Wilhelm I. im Kürass mit Umhang auf einer (Welt)kugel stehend. Die in Latein gehaltene Widmungsinschrift war in dem Bogenfeld über dem Denkmal zu lesen.

Obwohl das Denkmal schon im Jahr seiner Erstellung 1730 im Packhof angelangt war, brauchte es bis ins Jahr 1907 um ein würdigen Platz zu finden. Im Rahmen des Aufbaus der Schlossterrassen an der Südfront richtete man „am Kantberg“ auch eine Nische für dieses Denkmal ein. Kurz vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg verlor die Statue ihren rechten Arm, der durch einen blechernen ersetzt wurde. Nach der Besetzung Königsbergs wurde das Standbild 1945/46 durch sowjetische Soldaten verschleppt. Seitdem gilt es als verschollen.

Koordinaten: